Day 1: Installing Oracle Database 11g on Red Hat Linux 5.1 (32 bits)

Posted by Paola Pullas | Posted in Base de Datos, Refundation, Unix/Linux | Posted on 20-08-2010

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This guide describes how to install Oracle Database 11g Release 1 on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.1.

In order to install Oracle Database in production systems, we recommend to read the official installation guide in http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/B28359_01/install.111/b32002/toc.htm.

Hardware Requirements

Oracle says that the system must have at least 1GB of RAM and for the swap space you should use the next sizes:

  • If you physical memory is between 1 GB and 2 GB, swap should be 1.5 times the size of RAM.
  • If you physical memory is between 2 GB and 16 GB, swap should be equal to the size of RAM.
  • If you physical memory is more than 16 GB, swap should be 16 GB.

To check the size of physical memory, execute:

grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo

To check the size of swap space, execute:

grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo

Software Requirements

The next screen show you the list of packages needed to install Oracle Database 11g Release 1. You can find this information in the official installation guide:

Please note that some packages are missing in the previous list. In the next images I show you the configuration of my Red Hat Linux box for your reference. To determine whether the required packages are installed I use a command similar to the following:

# rpm -qa package_name
# rpm -qa binutils* compat-libstdc++* elfutils-libelf* gcc* glibc* libaio* libgcc* libstdc* make* numactl-devel* sysstat*

If a package is not installed, then install it from the Red Hat Linux cd’s or dvd’s, or if you purchased a Red Hat Suscription download the required package version from Red Hat Network in https://rhn.redhat.com.

If you noticed that some packages are not installed in your linux box use rpm -Uvh package_name command to install the packages.

Configure Name Resolution

Verify that the hosts file contains the fully qualified host name. You should have almost two lines in this file, one line with ip and localhost information and another line with your server ip and hostname information.

Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users

The following operating system groups and user are required if you are installing Oracle Database:

The OSDBA group (dba): You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on the system. It identifies operating system user accounts that have database administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege).

The OSOPER group (oper): Create this group if you want a separate group of operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges (the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group also have the SYSOPER privilege.

The OSASM group (asmadmin): This feature introduces a new SYSASM privilege that is specifically intended for performing Automatic Storage Management administration tasks. Using the SYSASM privilege instead of the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of responsibility between Automatic Storage Management administration and database administration. Members of the OSASM group can connect as SYSASM using operating system authentication and have full access to Automatic Storage Management.

The Oracle Inventory group (oinstall): You must have a group whose members are given access to write to the Oracle Central Inventory (oraInventory).

The oracle user (oracle): The first time you install Oracle software on the system you must create the oracle user. This user owns all of the software installed during the installation. This user must have the Oracle Inventory group as its primary group. It must also have the OSDBA and OSOPER groups as secondary groups.

In the next images I show you how to create the Oracle user, the oinstall group and the dba group. Additionally I assigned the both groups to oracle user:

Identifying Required Software Directories

Create the Oracle base directory for Oracle software installations. In the next images I show you how to create a base directory and how to assign permissions in this directory to the Oracle user:

Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA)

All Oracle components on the installation media are compliant with Optimal Flexible Architecture, which means that Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle Database components in directory locations that follow Optimal Flexible Architecture guidelines.

For Oracle 11g Database, the OFA recommends that $ORACLE_HOME path should be:

/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

  • Oracle recommends to use mount points such as /u01, /u02, etc. which complies with the OFA guidelines, but others can be used, for example:

  • /disk1/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

  • app is a standard directory name:

  • /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

  • oracle is the name of who owns the Oracle software, so if the user is “paola”, then the path of the $ORACLE_HOME directory should be:

  • /u01/app/paola/product/11.1.0/db_1

  • product is a standard directory name:

  • /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

  • 11.1.0 is the version of the product that you are installing in your linux box:

  • /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

  • db_1 is the type of installation that you are doing, for example: db for database, client for client, and so on:

  • /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1

Configure Oracle Installation Owner Shell Limits

To improve the performance of the software, you must increase the following shell limits for the oracle user:

oracle soft nproc 2047
oracle hard nproc 16384
oracle soft nofile 1024
oracle hard nofile 65536

Configuring Kernel Parameters

Verify that the kernel parameters are set to values greater than or equal to the minimum value needed by Oracle Software. If the current value for any parameter is higher than the value required, then do not change the value of that parameter. If you want that changes in kernel parameters persist when you restart your server, you should update the sysctl.conf file located in /etc folder:

fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576

Enter the following command to change the current values of the kernel parameters or restart your server in order the changes take effect in the operating system:

# /sbin/sysctl -p

Installing Oracle Software

For the installation, you need either the CD’s, DVD’s or a downloaded version of the Oracle Software that you could find in: http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/enterprise-edition/downloads/index.html.
After you downloaded the software, compute a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum for the downloaded files and compare the checksum numbers against the numbers posted on OTN’s website. For example:

cksum

In order to proceed with the installation you should authenticate in the server like oracle user, and then from the directory where the software was downloaded, open a terminal window and enter the following command:

$ /directory_path/runInstaller

Choose between the Basic and Advanced Installation Method. The first one is the default installation method and permits that you quickly install Oracle Database because this requires minimal user input. The second option lets you complete advanced tasks, for example: select a database character set or different product languages, create a database on a different file system from the software, configure Automatic Storage Management for database storage, specify different passwords for administrative schemas, configure automated backups or Oracle Enterprise Manager notification, etc. Click Next.

This screen is displayed only during the first installation of Oracle products on a system. Specify the full path of the Oracle Inventory directory. Click Next.

Choose between the different installation types: Oracle Standard Edition, Oracle Enterprise Edition, or Custom. The first one, installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution, replication, Web features, and facilities for building business-critical applications. The second one, installs licensable Oracle Database options and database configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing. The other one, enables you to select the individual components that you want to install from the list of all available components. Click Next.

Enter the Oracle home name and directory path in which you want to install Oracle components. The directory path should not contain spaces. Click Next.

The screen checks that the system meets the minimum requirements for the installation. Correct any errors that Oracle Universal Installer may have found, and then click Next.

Select one of the following options: Create a database, Configure Automatic Storage Management or Install database software only. The first one lets you create a database. The second one lets you create an Automatic Storage Management instance only. The other one lets you install the database software only. This option does not create a database or configure Automatic Storage Management. Click Next.

In this screen you should specify the operating system groups that you created previously to the installation. Click Next.

Review the information displayed in the screen. Click Next.

This screen displays status information while the product is being installed.

Before to accept this screen, you should read the instructions and run the scripts orainstRoot.sh and root.sh like root user in a separate terminal.

Review the information displayed in the screen. Click Exit.

Configure the environment variables in order to use the Oracle Software, in order to do that you should edit the .bash_profile file located in the $HOME of oracle user.

Author: Paola Pullas
Do you need to buy support?: Contact me at pp@refundation.com

If you think that this tutorial helped you. Make a donation to this initiative. We appreciate your support.





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Comments (42)

Great work, thanks, only small detail: it would be better some text in your screenshots place separately, propably:

export ORACLE_BASE=…
export ORACLE_HOME=…

Reader can then use Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V and easily.

Hi Martin,

Thanks for your comment. I will update the first tutorial with your observations :-).

Paola.

[…] ensure that you installed the Oracle Software according the tutorial in http://www.ecuoug.org/?p=264. In this post I show you how to create an Oracle […]

[…] Day 1: Installing Oracle Database 11g on Red Hat Linux 5.1 (32 bits) […]

Excelente documento de ejemplo para instalar oracle 11g,
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